Rethinking the Time of the Dinosaurs - A Nonfiction Piece

This is something I wrote earlier this month.  It is a work of nonfiction, in case you were wondering.  :)

Most people agree that dinosaurs existed sometime in history.  However, there is controversy about when dinosaurs walked the earth.  Did they live over 65 million years ago or alongside man, only a few thousand years ago?  A discovery that was made in 2005 may help put this dispute to rest.  Soft tissue found inside a dinosaur fossil provides evidence that dinosaurs and the earth are not as old as some scientists believe.
     The majority of scientists believe that dinosaurs first appeared on earth around 230 million years ago and went extinct about 65 million years ago (Harmon).  Scientists use several methods to determine the age of fossils.  One such method is stratigraphy.  This uses rock layers to determine the age.  The fossils found in lower layers are older than those found in higher layers of strata.  The layers of rock, called strata, are dated by the fossils found in it.  There are certain fossils that are assumed to represent a certain time period.  These are called index fossils (Wile 185).  If one of these fossils is found in a certain layer, then that layer must be from that time period.  For example, before 1994, when a living version of this tree was found, if a Wollemi pine was in a layer of strata, it was assumed that that layer was from the Jurassic period as were all of the other fossils in that layer (Wile 204).
    In 2005, something was found that would be virtually impossible if the fossils were as old as most scientists believe.  In a supposed 80 million year old Tyrannosaurus rex fossil (Wile 203), soft tissue was discovered by Dr. Mary Schweitzer and her colleagues.  The tissue found inside of the fossil was found when the thigh bone had to be broken for transport. Scientists were shocked, and so they studied the tissue. 
    The fossil was petrified, but not all of the way through (Wile 203).  When something is petrified, it means that the organic material is converted into rock (Wile 162).  Water has to be present and flow over the pores of the creature.  The minerals inside of the water would fill those tiny openings.  When the water evaporates, the minerals are left behind.  When the creature decomposes, the minerals are left in the exact form of the dead animal that was in its spot (Wile 162-163).   
    Pieces of DNA were found in the fossil.  DNA breaks down overtime.  Sure, the environment does aid in preserving it, but even if it was frozen in extreme temperatures, it would not have lasted more than 7 million years (Smith).  Dr. Schweitzer actually said in 2010, "When you think about it, the laws of chemistry and biology and everything else that we know say that it should be gone, it should be degraded completely" (Smith).  Some may question if the soft tissue could last even several thousand years.  Egyptian mummies, which are a few thousand years old, show the preservation of DNA and other organic material, similar to what Dr. Schweitzer noted in the T-rex fossil (Snelling).
    Dr. Schweitzer tried to explain this phenomena recently, saying that the iron helped preserve the soft tissue much like formaldehyde (Smith).  According to her idea, the iron worked to preserve the soft tissue, stable proteins, and cross-link proteins.  Iron cannot form covalent cross-links directly; formaldehyde can (Smith).  Even formaldehyde cannot preserve soft tissue for very long.  Many embalmers of human corpses say that formaldehyde is used to only slow down the process of decomposition, not to prevent it.  Dr. Schweitzer performed experiments to test her idea that didn't represent the conditions in which the dinosaur was actually preserved (Smith).  Pure hemoglobin was used in her experiments (Smith).  This would not be the case in the natural world.  Besides, it would have to have been extremely concentrated to have worked to preserve the tissue for a long period of time.  If the hemoglobin were diluted, it would have done nothing.  
Since the 2005 discovery, some fossils much older than the T-rex fossil have been found to have soft tissue as well. Some of these other fossils date back to the Jurassic Period.
    The discovery of this soft tissue in a fossil that was determined to be 80 million years old could lead to some questioning about the dating techniques used.  The rate of decay of the element Carbon-14 is something widely used to date once living things.  According to the decay rate of this element, there should be none in an ancient fossil.  For example, a piece of fossilized wood dated to be 22-250 million years in age should contain no Carbon-14.  But it does.  And according to the amount of this element present, it should be 20,700 to 44,700 years old (Snelling).  Radiocarbon has been round in diamonds that are estimated to be millions of years old. According to the amount of Carbon-14 they have in them, they are really less than 55,000 years old (Snelling).
    There are other evidences that the earth is much younger than many scientists say, which would mean that dinosaurs did not live millions of years ago.  Given the rate of decay of animals and the slow rate most scientists think that fossils form, there should be fewer fossils than there are (Wile 203) because organisms would decay before their fossils would have formed.  However, it is possible for fossils to form quickly.  A waterwheel that was built about 75 years ago is now almost completely petrified.  This happened because there was so much water that was rich in minerals flowing over it (Wile 202).
    The salinity of the ocean is another evidence that the earth is young.  The amount of salt in the ocean increases every year.  The basis for uniformitarianism is "the present is the key to the past" (Wile 174).  If the amount of salt increased at the same rate for millions of years as uniformitarians believe it did, the salinity would be much higher than it is now at 3.5 percent ("The Sea Does Not Have Enough Minerals").
    According to most scientists, geological formations take millions of years to form.  But they can form very quickly by a catastrophe.  Engineers Canyon near Mount Saint 
Helens formed in only a few hours.  When the volcano erupted, the rock was cut out to form 140 foot high cliffs.  The river in the bottom of the canyon formed after the canyon was actually carved out (Wile 196-197).  This shows that there are other possibilities than millions of years.
    Though the idea that dinosaurs are millions of years old is popular among scientists, the evidence points toward more recent dinosaurs, and in essence, a younger earth.  The recent discovery of soft tissue in the fossil of a T-rex continued the young earth movement which finds flaws in dating techniques and searches for other evidence of a young earth.  And they don't have to look far.  Dr. David Menton said it best when he said, "We conclude that the preservation of vessels, cells, and complex molecules in dinosaurs is entirely consistent with a young-earth creationist perspective but is highly implausible with the evolutionist's perspective about dinosaurs that died off millions of years ago" (Menton).

Works Cited
"Dating Dinosaurs and Other Fossils." Australian Museum. 3 Dec. 2009. Web. 3 May 2015.
Ghose, Tia. "Mesozoic Era: Age of the Dinosaurs." LiveScience. TechMedia Network, 7 Jan. 2015. Web. 5 May 2015.
Harmon, Katherine. "A Brief History of Dinosaurs." LiveScience. TechMedia Network, 6 Dec. 2012. Web. 3 May 2015.
Smith, Calvin.  "Dinosaur Soft Tissue."  Creation.com.  Creation Ministries International, 28 Jan. 2014.  Web.  3 May 2015.
Snelling, Dr. Andrew A.  "Carbon-14 in Fossils and Diamonds."  Answers in Genesis.  8 Dec. 2010.  Web.  3 May 2015.
Menton, Dr. David.  "#3 Soft Tissue in Fossils." Answers in Genesis.  1 Oct. 2012.  Web.  3 May 2015.
"The Sea Does Not Have Enough Minerals." Institute for Creation Research. Web. 3 May 2015.
Wile, Jay L. Exploring Creation with General Science. 2nd ed. Anderson, Ind.: Apologia
Educational Ministries, 2000. 162, 163, 174, 185, 196, 197, 202, 203, 204. Print.


I hope you enjoyed it!  Please, please, please do not post this anywhere else and say that you wrote it as I worked extremely hard on this.  Thank you!  And a special thanks to Katie Grace for coming up with the title.  :D You are awesome!


Half-Blood Cover Reveal + Givaway

Everyone!  Everyone!  Gather around!  It is time to reveal the Half-Blood cover reveal!  I am BEYOND EXCITED!  *fangirls* So, without further ado, here is Half-Blood by Jaye L. Knight.

About the Book
The gasps and murmuring grew. Though some were hardly more than whispers, clear words reached Jace’s ears—dangerous, monster, animal, soulless. He tried to back away from their accusing eyes, but the collar pulled hard against his throat and held him in place.

For all his years as a slave, Jace has known nothing but the hatred people hold for his mixed blood—one half human, the other half the blood of a race considered monsters. Always, he is the outsider and quickly learns it is better to keep to himself. But, when his volatile ryrik blood leads him to do the unthinkable, he is thrown into a world of violence and bloodshed. 

Forced to become a gladiator, Jace finds more and more of his heart dying as his master works to break down his will not to become the monster everyone believes he is. When a stranger interferes with his master’s harsh punishment, Jace’s world is upended yet again. But with it comes the possibility of hope that has long since died. Could the man possibly hold the key to escaping the hopeless darkness that is Jace’s life? Is there such a thing as life beyond the cruelty of slavery?

See where Jace’s story all began . . .

Coming This Summer

As part of a month long celebration for the one year publication anniversary of Resistance (Ilyon Chronicles - Book 1), Jaye is giving away several fun prizes! Enter for a chance to win using the form below! U.S. entries only please.

Participating Bloggers
There are many other wonderful bloggers participating in this cover reveal.  Please check out their post and their blogs!  To see the other participants, please click here.

About the Author

Jaye L. Knight is an award-winning author, homeschool graduate, and shameless tea addict with a passion for Christian fantasy. Armed with an active imagination and love for adventure, Jaye weaves stories of truth, faith, and courage with the message that even in the deepest darkness, God’s love shines as a light to offer hope. She has been penning stories since the age of eight and resides in the Northwoods of Wisconsin.

You can connect with Jaye on her websiteblogFacebookGoogle+, and Twitter.

This is so exciting!  If you have never heard of Jaye and her books, please do yourself a favor and buy a copy!


How to Learn Elvish

Hello!  Today I thought that I would post about learning the Elvish language, Sindarin.  This is the language created by J.R.R. Tolkien and I think that it is awesome!  I have created a list of some resources to guide you on your journey to Rivendell.  :)
*Disclaimer* - All videos mentioned have been watched and are clean.


If you just want to learn some basic phrases (such as hello, my name is ___, etc.), the video below is for you.

For a more in-depth study of the language, here is a free paper curriculum:


Pronunciation is a difficult thing for me to do correctly when reading something, so here is a video I found.

Writing in Elvish

The link that I am giving for writing Elvish instructs you on how to write your name in Elvish.  You can take this knowledge and write the Sindarin words in Elvish script.

More Resources


"A Time To Die" Review

About the Book
How would you live if you knew the day you'd die? Parvin Blackwater believes she has wasted her life. At only seventeen, she has one year left according to the Clock by her bedside. In a last-ditch effort to make a difference, she tries to rescue Radicals from the government’s crooked justice system. But when the authorities find out about her illegal activity, they cast her through the Wall -- her people's death sentence. What she finds on the other side about the world, about eternity, and about herself changes Parvin forever and might just save her people. But her clock is running out.

My Review
Oh.  My.  Word.  This book was amazing!  Please do yourself a favor and go read this book.  :)  There are so many things to fangirl...I mean review about.

I love the characters in this book.  They are so real and lovable.  It was really easy to relate to Parvin.  She has real emotion towards people and situations.  Her love is real.  Her hate is real.  Her fear is real. I appreciate that she isn't close to perfect.  She has times of doubt and impulse.  She makes mistakes.  Now I will move on to Jude.  Jude isn't a cookie cutter guy whose main purpose in the story is to make readers fall in love with him.  He has some major flaws and doesn't always save the day.

Everything Else
     That.  Cover.  Is.  Amazing.  
     The plot is awesome!  It is so very interesting and very unpredictable.  :) I love it!  I will definitely buy book 2 when it comes out!  Nadine Brandes, you have another fan right here!

About the Author

Nadine Brandes learned to write her alphabet with a fountain pen.
In Kindergarten.

Cool, right? She dealt with ink splotches before even knowing how to spell. She never decided to become a writer. Her brain simply classified it as a necessity to life -- like bathing, eating, and sleeping.

Nadine is an adventurer, fusing authentic faith with bold imagination. She writes stories about brave living, finding purpose, and other worlds soaked in imagination.

When she's not taste-testing a new chai or editing fantasy novels, Nadine is out traveling, finding new music, and pursuing active life.

Her debut dystopian novel, A Time to Die, released Fall 2014 from Enclave Publishing.


The Discovery of the Best Series Ever: The Ilyon Chronicles

Suilad everyone!  (Suilad is an Elvish greeting) Sorry for my absence.  I have been very busy with Camp NaNoWriMo and other things in life in general.  :)  Today, I am participating in Jaye L. Knight's Resistance Anniversary by posting about how I found out about the Ilyon Chronicles (which you probably know is my FAVORITE).  :D  This is a really exciting post for me!

Just a few days earlier, I had just started emailing my first Internet friend, Katie Grace (www.awritersfaith.blogspot.com).  I was out of books to read and asked for suggestions.  She recommended anything by Molly Evangeline (Jaye L. Knight's former pen name).  By the end of the first book I knew I had found my favorite author and within the next 3 days I had finished the Makilien Trilogy.  Katie told me that she was going to publish another series under Jaye L. Knight and I rushed over to see what it was about.  I couldn't wait and the first thing I did after waking up on release day was buy the book!  I LOVED IT (and still do)!!!  If we cross paths sometime I can pretty much guarantee that you will hear about Jaye and the Ilyon Chronicles.  :)  I obsess over them!

Sorry if that was a little too much fangirling for you.  :)  It is always present when my fandom is talked about.

If you haven't already, please please please head over to www.ilyonchronicles.com and see what I am talking about!

That's all for now.  Galu!  (Galu is the Elvish word for "blessings".)


Camp NaNoWriMo Recap

Sorry I have been absent for a while.  Fact is, things have been CRAZY in my life!  And I mean really crazy.  So even though Camp ended 14 days ago, I am going to tell you how it went...

I started out strong.  Within the first couple of days, I had written up to where I was supposed to be a few days later.  Towards the end of the month, I took a couple of days off.  And it really hurt my goal.  I also had a busy life other than writing.  I ended about 5,000 words short.

BUT...my cabin won!!!!  Yay!!!  We all were doing word wars on the last day and we made it happen!

I will try to be better at blogging from now on.  By the end of this month my life should slow down.  So here is what you can look forward to...

-"A Time to Die" Review
- "Veiled Rose" Review
- "Moonblood" Review
- Other writing posts I have yet to think of.  :)

Have a blessed day!